Process Of Industrialization In India
The need for development traces its origin from ancient civilization when humans attempted to enhance their lifestyles from what the environment provided. In these attempts, they adopted the use of science and technology and human skills to achieve this goal. Their desire to modernize their lives led to the adoption of the use of machines that facilitated Industrialization. India’s emergence of modern industries began in the second half of the 19th century, through their first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru who considered industrialization as the key to alleviating poverty that had increased in the country under colonial rule. What followed was the annunciation of the industrial policy of free India in 1948 that saw the promotion of mixed economy with the government carrying its responsibilities. The three sectors include one, agriculture and mining, the second comprised of textile industry, automobile, iron, and steel industries. The third sector comprised of banking, finance, and education.
In the first sector, agriculture was prioritized to make the country food secure, by first revising the neglect of agriculture passed by their colonizers and reversing it through the provision of seeds, fertilizers, farming credit, and the introduction of rural electrification. Additionally, by 1947, the country committed over 13, 900 hectares for growing wheat, over 35,000 hectares in growing rice, making the country food secure by mid-1970s. The government also facilitated farming by erecting irrigation and canal networks in Punjab and Narmada valley. Cotton farming succeeded again as its production and exportation had diminished when the British economy overtook them. Maintaining of production of daily products at a constant level was easy as its production was unaffected. The development of coal mining from 1874 to 1914 inspired the development of major industries. Additionally, the Indian population took up the mining of lead, which served as a favorable raw material for their production of ammunition.
In the second sector, it is evident that the manufacturing economy of India contributed positively to industrialization. First, the textile industry, a prominent economic activity in India continually grew post-colonization due to high production capabilities and high numbers of skilled employees. Moreover, with time, the industry adopted new mechanization processes that led to the development of cotton textile industry in India in 1854. Moreover, motor companies in India began to develop early on in its history. In 1897, Mr. Foster became the first Indian to own a car while Jamshedji Tata went on to own car as well and later introduced the Tata Company accredited for the manufacturing of cars. The automobile industry in India boasts of being the tenth largest motor producer in the world, producing over two million annually. At this century, the company laid the foundation for car making. The big iron industry at Kulti started in 1875, while paper mills cropped up in Titagarh and Poona areas and Iron and Steel Company known as Tata, began in 1907.
The Indian state intervened in the financial industry by facilitating the emergence of banks from the late 18th century. Banks such as The General Bank of India became the first to be established. Moreover, the government introduced the industrial and financial policy that governed and controlled this sector through allocating credit to various firms in an attempt to discourage foreign investments. The government also took up the responsibility of promoting industrialization by building on the human capital. By late 19th century, the average literacy levels were at an all-time low. Consequently, the government undertook the mandate of enforcing elementary education in the country and encouraged more students to enroll for both primary and secondary education that were voluntary. Moreover, electricity was made available to promote education.