A stereotype is any notion that is widely selected about certain types of people or specific ways of behavior that is intended to be representing the entire group of those people or behaviors as a whole. These beliefs or notions may or may not accurately be reflecting reality. However, this is just an underlying rational definition. Within psychology and extending across other areas, there are various theories and conceptualizations of stereotyping that are, providing their own broadened definition. Some of these definitions are sharing commonalities, though each one may also be harboring unique features that may be contradicting others. The word stereotype is deriving from Greek terms (stereos) meaning solid, and (typos) meaning impression, hence solid impression. The word is coming from the print trade and was first embraced in the year 1798 by Firmin Didot in describing a printing trade that was duplicating any typography. The stereotype or the duplicate printing trade is used to print instead of the aboriginal. Aside from printing, the initial reference to stereotype was in the year 1850, as a noun that was meaning image perpetuating without changing. However it was only until 1922 that typecast was initially used in the current psychological sense by an American member of the press known as Walter Lippmann. Stereotypes can be negative or positive, but they are rarely communicating accurate information about other people. This essay thrives to describe gender stereotypes and how stereotyping is imparting the modern society.
Gender Stereotype Variations in Cultures: East and West
As stated by professor Lei Chang, gender outlook within the sphere of domestic roles and work can be determined by using a cross cultural gender role outlook test. Psychological methods of the east have historically been examined by using western instruments that have been explained which potentially is far more reached method than linguistic examination. Some North American models for gender assessment for gender role outlook include: sex role doctrine scale, sex role egalitarian scope, and outlook towards women scope. Through these tests, it is recognized that American southerners are exhibiting few egalitarian gender views than their northern peers, to demonstrate that gender views are automatically affected by a person’s culture, and may be differing among peers whose cultures are few miles apart (Rosina C. et al, 2017). Although prevailing studies have generally been focusing on gender outlook or views that are task related, so far there is no study on particular domestic roles. Supported Hofstede’s 1980 discoveries, that prime masculinity cultures, are related with low percentages of women that hold technical and professional employment, test values for task associated egalitarianism were lower for Chinese comparing for Americans. This is maintained by the number of women that are holding professional jobs in china who are far less than American women; the data is clearly indicating the limitations on chances open to women in modern Eastern society. In opposition, there was no variation between the viewpoint of Americans and Chinese concerning domestic gender roles.
A 1992 research testing labeling and gender stereotypes among young children. The researchers were dividing into two various studies. The first study was investigating how children were identifying the variations between gender labels of girls and boys. The second study was looking at both genders stereotyping and labeling in the relationship of mother and child. Within the initial study, twenty three children between the ages of two and seven experienced a series of gender stereotyping and labeling tests that consisted of showing the children images of females and males or things like hammer or broom then labeling those to a specific gender. The results of these tests were showing that children under the age of three could be making gender stereotypic relationships. The next study was looking at gender stereotyping and labeling in the association between the mother and the child by using three distinct methods. The initial study consisted of identifying stereotyping and labeling, elementary the same way as the initial study. The second consisted of observing behavior, which was looking at ten minute play period with child and mother using gender certain toys. The results these researches was showing the same as the initial study with regarding stereotyping and labeling (Roy et al, 2017). Gender stereotypes are truly common in the society and most of them are shown to be conveying negative impression (Mcleod, 2015). Some basic forms of gender stereotypes are included as follows: personal trait: women for instance are expected to be emotional and accommodative while men are expected to be usually aggressive self centered. The second is domestic behaviors: women for instance are expected to be caring for children, cooking, and cleaning the house while men are expected to be taking care of finance, working on the car, and doing home repairing. The third is occupations: some individuals are quick in assuming that nurses and teachers are for women and that, engineers, doctors and pilots are for men. The fourth is physical appearance: women for instance are expected to be graceful and thin while men are expected to be muscular and tall. Women and men are expected to groom and dress in manners that are stereotypical to one’s gender such as men wearing pants and women wearing makeup and dresses.
How to Fight Gender stereotypes
One probably sees gender stereotypes all around and one might have seen sexism or prejudice based on gender. In order to help everyone, there are ways of challenging these stereotypes regardless of one’s gender identity or gender. The first thing to do is to point it out: the internet, film, TV, and magazines are full of contrary gender stereotypes. Sometimes it is hard for people to notice these stereotypes unless pointing them out by talking to friends and family. The second is living as an example: one should be a role model by respecting people no matter of their gender identity and creating a safe surrounding for people to be expressing themselves and their true standard no matter what society’s expectations and stereotypes are. The third is speaking up: one needs to challenge those people who are making sexist comments and jokes whether in person or online.
In conclusion, a stereotype is any notion that is widely selected about certain types of people or specific ways of behavior that is intended to be representing the entire group of those people or behaviors as a whole. Stereotype is bias or judgment that is widely expected about an individual or group even though it is not always accurate and it is over simplified. Gender stereotypes can end up causing unfair treatment and inequality to someone of a certain gender.
- Roy C. O’Brien M. Peyton V. Mistry R. Hruda L. Jacobs A. Caldera Y. Huston A. Roy C. (2017). Gender-Role Cognition in Three-Year-Old Boys and Girls. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1007036600980
- Chia C. Moore L. Lam N. Chuang J. Cheng S. (2017). Cultural Differences in Gender Role Attitudes between Chinese and American Students. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF01560275
- Mcleod S. (2015). Stereotypes. Retrieved from https://www.simplypsychology.org/katz-braly.html