Gender Based Violence
The World Health Organization is defining hostility as “the international using of physical of power or force, actual or threatened, against another individual, against a society or group, or against oneself, which has a high chance of resulting in death, injury, deprivation, maldevelopment, or mental trauma”, although the class is acknowledging that including “the using of power” in its definition is expanding on the conventional comprehension of the term. This definition is involving intentionality with the commitment of the act itself regardless of the outcome it is producing. Generally, anything that is provoked in a damaging or injurious manner may be describing as violent even if it is not intended to be violent (by an individual and against an individual). Gender is the array of characteristics to pertain or distinguish between femininity and masculinity. Gender violence comprises of sexual assault, sexual harassment, sex trafficking, stalking, domestic violence, prostitution, Female Genital Mutilation, relationship violence in similar sex partnerships and heterosexual, and rape. The phrase gender violence is reflecting the notion that is often serving in maintaining structural gender imbalance, and comprises all kinds of violence against women, men, gays, adolescents, gender non observing, transgender individuals, and children. This kind of violence in some manner is influencing or determined by gender relations. To adequately be addressing this kind of violence, one has to be addressing cultural aspects that are encouraging violence as portion of the masculinity. This paper seeks to address gender violence and its impact in modern society.
Gender violence is covering various kinds of abuse and one of these abuses is domestic violence. Domestic violence is a pattern of conduct which is involving violence and other abuses by a single individual against another individual in a domestic surrounding, such as cohabitation, or marriage. It may be called close partner violence a partner or spouse in a close relationship is committing it against the other partner or spouse and can be taking place in a same sex or heterosexual relationships, or between former partners or spouses. Domestic violence may also be involving violence against the elderly or children. It is taking a number of all types, comprising religious, reproductive, economic, verbal, physical, and sexual abuse which can be ranging from subtle coercing kinds to marital rape and to violent physical abuses like acid throwing, female genital mutilation, beating, and choking that is resulting in death or disfigurement. Domestic murders comprise honor killings, dowry deaths, bride burning, and stoning. Women are overwhelmingly the victims of domestic violence globally, and they tend to be experiencing more harsh forms of violence (Cooper-white, 2011). In some nations, domestic violence is often viewed as justified, specifically in cases of suspected or actual infidelity on the side of the woman, and is legally allowed. Research has determined that there is existing direct and notable connection between a nation’s level of rate of domestic violence and gender. Domestic violence is one of the most underreported felonies globally for both women and men and because of social stigmas concerning victimizing male, men are facing an increased probability of being ignored by healthcare providers.
Sexual assault is a sexual deed in which a person is coercing or physically forcing another to engage in sex against their will or none relating sexual touching of an individual. Sexual assault is a kind of gender violence and it comprises of rape (like forced oral, anal, or vaginal insertion or drug fostered sexual assault), child sexual abuse, groping, or the harm of the individual in a sexual way. In the United States, the definition of sexual assault changes widely between the personal states (Savino, & Turvey, 2011). Normally, however, it comprises of unwanted sexual act. The abuse, Incest, and Rape National Network is defining sexual act as “unwanted sexual act that ceases short of rape or tried rape.” This comprises fondling and sexual touching. The National Center for Victims of Crimes is stating that, “Sexual assault carries many forms comprising attacks like rape or tried rape as well as unwanted sexual act. Normally a sexual assault takes place when someone is touching the part of another individual’s body in a sexual manner, even through clothes worn with the individual permission.” This kind of gender violence is a criminal felony and can be committed by both women and men. Victims of this violence may face difficulty or reporting the incident to the police because of threats or due to prejudice by the society.
Female Genital Mutilation
Female genital mutilation is also acknowledged as female circumcision and female genital cutting, is the practice of removing or cutting of all or some of the outer female genitalia. This practice is normally discovered in Middle East, Asia, and Africa, and also within societies from nations in which female genital mutilation is normal (Banaya, 2016). This kind of gender violence is carried out mostly in young women and is usually carried out by a traditional circumciser who is using a blade to remove the female genitalia. The process of carrying out this gender violence varies as stated by the ethnic groups or country. The procedure normally comprises of removing the clitoral organs and clitoral blood, removing of the outer and inner labia, and closing of the vulva which is the last process and is known as infibulation. When this is done a small hole is normally left to permit passage of menstrual fluids and urine: the vagina is unfastened for intercourse and unfastened even more for childbirth. This act is established in gender equality, attempting to regulate women’s sexuality and notions about beauty, modesty, and purity. This practice is commonly carried out and initiated by women themselves who view it as a source of respect, and those fearing that having their granddaughters and daughters cut will be exposing the girls to be socially excluded. A number of health issues are associated with FGM depending on the procedure. This may comprise of recurrent infections, difficulty when passing menstrual fluid and urinating, formation of cysts, chronic pain, fatal bleeding, and difficulty during childbirth, and inability to get pregnant.
In conclusion, gender violence comprises of sexual assault, sexual harassment, sex trafficking, stalking, domestic violence, prostitution, female genital mutilation, relationship violence in similar sex partnerships and heterosexual, and rape. Gender hostility against men, women, and girls occurs at various points in one’s life cycle. Globally, women especially are the most victims when it comes to gender violence and this can be seen in rape cases, female genital mutilation, prostitution, sex trafficking, stalking, and sex harassment. There are no benefits of gender violence except torture and regulation of women sexuality.
- Banayya J. S. (2016). Female Genital Mutilation Is a Violation of Reproductive Rights of Women: Implications for Health Workers. Health & Social Work, 41(1), p25-31
- Savino, J. O. (2011). Chapter 2: Rape and Sexual Assault. In Rape Investigation Handbook Edition: Second Edition, p22-55
- Cooper-white P. (2011). Intimate Violence against Women: Trajectories for Pastoral Care in a New Millennium. Pastoral Psychology, (60)6, p809-855